Acetonitrile methyl cyanide industrial grade acetonitrile extractant
Acetonitrile is an organic compound with a molecular formula of C2H3N. It is a colorless liquid, highly volatile, and has a special smell similar to ether. It has excellent solvent properties and can dissolve a variety of organic, inorganic and gaseous substances. It has certain toxicity and is infinitely miscible with water and alcohol. Acetonitrile can undergo typical nitrile reactions and is used to prepare many typical nitrogen-containing compounds. It is an important organic intermediate. Acetonitrile can be used as a solvent for the synthesis of vitamin A, cortisone, carbon amine drugs and their intermediates, as well as an active medium solvent for the manufacture of vitamin B1 and amino acids. Can replace chlorinated solvents. Used in vinyl coatings, also used as fatty acid extractant, alcohol denaturant, butadiene extractant and solvent for acrylonitrile synthetic fiber. It also has many uses in fabric dyeing, lighting, perfume manufacturing and photosensitive material manufacturing.
|Molecular weight: 41.06
|Appearance and properties: colorless liquid with pungent odor.
|Heat of combustion (kJ/mol): 1264.0
|Melting point (℃): -45.7
|Critical temperature (℃): 274.7
|Relative density (water = 1): 0.79 (15°C)
|Critical pressure (MPa): 4.83
|Boiling point (℃): 81.6
|The logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient: -0.34
|Relative vapor density (air=1): 1.42
|Flash point (°C): 12.8°C (CC); 6°C (OC)
|Saturated vapor pressure (kPa): 13.33 (27℃)
|Upper explosion limit%(V/V): 16.0
|Molecular formula: C2H3N
|Lower explosion limit %(V/V): 3.0
|Ignition temperature (℃): 524
|cas number: 75-05-8
|Solubility: miscible with water, soluble in most organic solvents such as ethanol and ether
Acetonitrile is a stable compound, it is not easy to be oxidized or reduced, but there is a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen, which is prone to reactions such as addition and hydrolysis.
1. Addition with hydrogen halide, addition with hydrogen sulfide, addition with alcohol in the presence of inorganic acid and addition with acid or acid anhydride.
2. Acetonitrile is hydrolyzed in the presence of acid or base to generate acetamide, which is further hydrolyzed to generate acetic acid and ammonia.
3. Acetonitrile is hydrogenated and reduced to produce mono-, di-, and triethylamine.
4. Acetonitrile reacts with cyanogen chloride to form malononitrile.
5. Acetonitrile is directly oxidized to form hydrocyanic acid under the action of a catalyst.
Chemical analysis and instrumental analysis
Acetonitrile has been used as an organic modifier and solvent for thin-layer chromatography, paper chromatography, spectroscopy and polarographic analysis in recent years. Since high-purity acetonitrile does not absorb ultraviolet light in the range of 200nm to 400nm, an application under development is as a solvent for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which can make the analysis sensitivity as high as 10-9.
Solvent for extraction and separation of hydrocarbons
Acetonitrile is a widely used solvent, mainly used as a solvent for extractive distillation to separate butadiene from C4 hydrocarbons. Acetonitrile is also used for the separation of other hydrocarbons, such as separating propylene, isoprene and methyl acetylene from hydrocarbon fractions. Acetonitrile is also used in some special separations, such as the extraction and separation of fatty acids from vegetable oil and cod liver oil, to make the treated oil lighter in color, pure, and smell improved, while the vitamin content remains unchanged. Acetonitrile is also widely used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical, pesticide, textile, and plastic sectors.
Synthetic pharmaceutical and pesticide intermediates
Acetonitrile can be used to synthesize a variety of pharmaceutical and pesticide intermediates. In medicine, it is used to synthesize a series of important pharmaceutical intermediates such as vitamin B1, metronidazole, ethambutol, triamterene, adenine and dimethicone; in pesticides, it is used to synthesize pyrethroids Insecticides and pesticide intermediates such as etoxicarb.
Semiconductor cleaning agent
Acetonitrile is an organic solvent with strong polarity. It has good solubility in grease, inorganic salts, organic matter and polymer compounds. It can clean grease, wax, fingerprints, corrosives and flux residues on silicon wafers. Therefore, high-purity acetonitrile can be used as a semiconductor cleaning agent.
In addition to the above applications, acetonitrile can also be used as a raw material for organic synthesis, a catalyst or a component of transition metal complex catalysts. In addition, acetonitrile is also used in fabric dyeing and coating compounds, and it is also an effective stabilizer for chlorinated solvents.